Although instrumental analytical chemistry has occupied a lot of my professional career, a very limited budget now means we have to do things the old-school way. It takes very much longer to get the results, but the validity is still there. After all, the veracity of instrumental methods is underpinned by the classical chemistry.

I have dusted-off two of my much loved text books. Both are now over fifty years old, but their contents as fresh as ever, such are the tenets of pure science.

Nearly all the formal protocols I use for wall-wash samples are derived from this classic text.

Most of the spot-tests I use can be found in Vogel’s companion qualitative analysis text book.